kongjie 发表于 2008-12-15 18:28:00
SHEN KUO A great scientist and Political reformer
SHEN KUO was a person during the Northern Song Dynasty. He was born in Qiantang, Hangzhou in 1031 and his family is bureaucracy. During his childhood, he red all books collected by his family and his mother enlightened him. When he had already red all the books at age 14, he began to travel all over china following his father. When he was 24 years old, he worked in government.
At that time, the Emperor wanted to innovate and abrogate incongruous policies, in 1069, femous litterateur and politicians WANG AN SHI was appointed Prime minister. WANG AN SHI sets off Large-scale Reform to revitalizate Northern SONG Dynasty. SHEN KUO was reused by him, made many contributions.
IN 1072, Shen Kuo preside over the Bian River water conservancy. After investigation, he tooks almost five years to turn over one million hectare river bank into field by layered weir building. This improved the development of agriculture.
In 1074, when SHEN KUO served as an officail about foreign affairs and Military in HE BEI province, he studied a lot about millitary, border defense, vehicles, weapons, tactics, wrote <The Treaty about City Reparing>,<Frontier Zhenfa> and other martial books. He also studied and mastered the capability of iron and steel,reconstructing weapons and creating armours which was more softer , thiner ,and stronger. he even invented the way of calculating the amout of accumulations and their gaps.
In 1075,Song and Liao Dynasty bursted into boundary conflicts . Shengkuo was assigned to deal with this problems. he protected the integrity of Song Dynasty's territory with his great knowledge in survey border and geogragh.
Next year,in 1076,Shengkuo was appointed to compile <The Map of the whole Country>.It tooks 12 years and enormous files to complet this great work.
SHENKUO improved the measurement and instruments of time and celestial bodies. in 1075 he proposed a new calendar, it would not only abey the tracks of celestial bodies and also be favor to agriculture than old calendar. But becouse his fear of being implicated in the failure of Wang AN SHI and prevents by old force, this calendar enforced only 18 years.
But as a great scientist,Sheng Kuo still submitted the twelve solar calendar in his old years. That was similar to the one we use now,just a little difference in Division of month, even more reasonable to agriculture than ours.
In 1076, politic reform by WANG ANSHI failed, SHENKUO was demoted. In 1087, The Map of the whole Country completed. From next year till his death, he dwelled in mengxi Garden in the eastern suburbs of the Zhenjiang Jiangsu.
During this time, he collected his knowledge and experiences into a book, <essay in mengxi>.it has Rich contents, including astronomy, calendar, mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, geography, geology,
Medicine, literature, history, archeology, music, and even art.It totaled 600 items. 200 of them belong to science and technology , Recorded many of his invention, discovery and insight, this is the coordinates in the history of Chinese science.
in his lifetime he get married twice. after his first wife died in 1067, he married his second wife in 1069. The wife was very aggressive, and usually abused Shen Kuo, but after the death of his wife, he was so sad even try to kill himself, and one year later, in 1095, he was 65 years old and died from serious illness.